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Stephen Krashen (University of Southern California) is an expert in the field of Order hypothesis;; the Input hypothesis;; and the Affective Filter hypothesis. It is a hypothesis of second-language acquisition theory, and a field of According to the affective filter hypothesis, certain emotions, According to Krashen (), there are two prime issues that. The affective filter hypothesis in language learning, what does it mean? Krashen believes we should not correct people in the early stages.

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They function as a filter between krashwn speaker and the listener that reduces the amount of language input the listener is able to understand. This balance will depend on numerous variables including the language level of the students, the context of language use and the personal goals of each student. Finally, learning is seen to be heavily dependent on hypothesiss mood of the learner, with learning being impaired if the learner is under stress or does not want to learn the language.

This is an obstacle to fluency. What has been your experience in this regard? The affective filter hypothesis in language learning, what does it mean?

Krashen’s Hypotheses

Krashen’s hypotheses have been influential in language educationparticularly in the United Statesbut have received criticism from some academics.

If we have a text handy, we will feel the urge to refer to it and we will speak less well. These negative emotions prevent efficient processing of the language input. They must not only understand what is meant but also how things are quite literally expressed, i.

Start learning new languages, simply and easily Get started for free! Extra-linguistic knowledge includes our knowledge of the world and of the situation, that is, the context.

What are Krashen’s Hypotheses? The Natural Order hypothesis According to Krashen, learners acquire parts of language in a predictable order. Krashen also suggests that there is individual variation among language learners with regard to ‘monitor’ use. Many people remain reluctant to speak, and have great anxiety not only about speaking but about the whole learning process. It requires meaningful interaction in the target language – natural communication – in which speakers are concentrated not in the form of their utterances, but in the communicative act.

In any aspect of education it is always important to create a safe, welcoming environment in which students can learn. The Input hypothesis is Krashen’s attempt to explain how the learner acquires a second language — how second language acquisition takes place. According to Krashen the affective filter can be prompted by many different variables including anxiety, self-confidence, motivation and stress.


The following sections offer a description of the fifth and final hypothesis of the theory, the affective filter hypothesis, as well as the major criticism by other linguistics and educators surrounding the hypothesis. In other words, affective variables such as fear, nervousness, boredom, and resistance to change can effect the acquisition of a second language by preventing information about the second language from reaching the language areas of the mind.

The Acquisition-Learning hypothesis According to Krashen, there are two ways of developing language ability. The only instance in which the teaching of grammar can result in language acquisition and proficiency is when the students are interested in the subject and the target language is used as a medium of instruction.

This is a very common phenomenon. Filtet language instruction can and should work to minimize the effects of the affective filter. Krashen claims that learners with high motivation, self-confidence, a good self-image, and a krashn level of anxiety are better equipped for success in second language acquisition.

Language learning strategies Communication strategies Code-switching Good language learner studies. Krashen designed two levels: Test your knowledge of Krashen’s Hypotheses with this quiz. Applied Linguistics 5 2.

It is the massive input through large amounts of listening and reading that will enable me to speak well. The input hypothesisalso known as the monitor modelis a group of five hypotheses of second-language acquisition developed by the linguist Stephen Krashen in the s and s. A paradigm shift in foreign language teaching. Archived copy as title Articles needing additional references from May All articles needing additional references All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from May All articles rkashen specifically marked weasel-worded phrases Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from August Articles with filtr statements from August Articles with unsourced statements from October In her reflection Marguerite mentions how her students are apprehensive to produce spoken language.

The affective filter is an impediment to learning or acquisition caused by negative emotional ” affective ” responses to one’s environment. According to the affective filter hypothesis, affect effects acquisition, but not learning, by facilitating or preventing comprehensible input from reaching the language acquisition device.


Views Read Edit View history. The natural order hypothesis states that all learners acquire a language in roughly the same order.

Lack of self-confidence is frequently related to the over-use of the “monitor”.

The Reading Hypothesis This hypothesis basically states that the more we read in a SL the greater our vocabulary will be. Afffective “learned system” or ” learning ” is the product of formal instruction and it comprises a conscious process which results in conscious knowledge ‘about’ the language, for example knowledge of grammar rules.

Krashen believes we should not correct people in the early stages.

Input hypothesis

According to this hypothesis, teachers should filtee aware that certain structures of a language are easier to acquire than others and therefore language structures should be taught in an order that is conducive to learning. Caldwellcomprehensible input, defined by Krashen as understanding messages, is indeed the necessary condition for acquisition, but it is not sufficient.

Acquisition-learning hypothesis Natural order hypothesis Monitor hypothesis Input hypothesis Affective filter hypothesis However, in spite of the popularity and influence of the Monitor Model, the five hypotheses are not without criticism.

As an SL teacher it will always be a challenge to strike a balance between encouraging accuracy and fluency in your students. In this section, we will look at the work of Stephen Krashen, specifically his 6 hypotheses on language acquisition, in order to better understand the challenges that might arise during the language learning process. There are many difficulties with the use of the monitor, making the monitor rather weak as a language tool.

Acquisition requires meaningful interaction in the target language, during which the acquirer is focused on meaning rather than form.

Teachers should start by introducing language concepts that are relatively easy for learners to acquire and then use scaffolding to introduce more difficult concepts. Trends in Research and Practice: In other words, the teacher talk meets the requirements for comprehensible input and perhaps with the students” participation the classroom becomes an environment suitable for acquisition.