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Download Citation on ResearchGate | DIALEKTIKA PENDIDIKAN ETIKA DALAM ISLAM (Analisis Pemikiran Ibnu Maskawaih) | p> Bahasa. View the profiles of people named Ibnu Maskawaih. Join Facebook to connect with Ibnu Maskawaih and others you may know. Facebook gives people the. Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Ya`qub, surnamed Miskawaih, is also called Abu ‘Ali al-Khazin. It is yet undecided whether he was himself Miskawaih or the son of.

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This counsel extends to not taking pride in his father’s possessions, whether food or clothing or anything else. Those who preach renunciation are iniquitous, because they want the services of others without rendering any service to them and this is complete injustice. Here he affirms anew his two-fold Anschauung. He applies this doctrine of the mean to ibny four cardinal virtues, and with this he ends the first chapter.

Based on work at: This something cannot be material, for matter accepts only one form in a determinate moment.

Through the sphere and its parts our bodies come into being. It seems that he depends entirely on the commentary of Porphyry on Aristotle’s Nichomachean Ethicswhich was translated into Arabic by Ishaq ibn Hunain, in twelve books.

The first leads to its salvation, the second to its perdition. Perhaps it also needs to be pointed out that Miskawayh was content simply to talk about the training of boys, without giving any details concerning the content of this training or the educational material which should be learnt by the boy; likewise he did not refer to the teachers, nor their manners and culture, as did others whose aims were in fact to write about the educational process and things connected with it [66]. If it is necessary to reproach the boy for what he has done, so that he will not revert to it, then this should be done in secret; because disclosing these matters might lead the boy to be impudent, and he would think little of hearing blame, and consequently indulging in detestable pleasures to which his nature incites him.

Chapter Miskawaih | A History of Muslim Philosophy Volume 1, Book 3 |

Miskawayh remarks that these opinions are taken from Aristotle, but he very soon turns in another direction to present the boy’s soul and its faculties in a picture that agrees with what Plato had earlier said in the Republic.

Miskawaih’s theory of evolution is basically the same as that of the Brethren of Purity. It was in this century that Abu ‘Ali Ahmad b. Nevertheless, the basic credit here goes to the spirit predominant in the Islamic community, which could permit at least some of its thinkers to transmit, or be influenced by, cultures of other nations previous to itself, without impediment; and it confirms also the idea of the meeting of cultures and the cross-fertilization of world civilizations and their mutual influence, in an ongoing movement of human thought.

Secondly, the importance of education for children and adults. The importance of transactions with people, as Miskawayh says, refers to the fact that transactions lead to the appearance of virtues which only do so in company and in dealings and interaction with others, such as integrity, courage, and generosity. But for every individual person a particular Good presents itself subjectively under the aspect of Happiness or Pleasure; and this consists in the full and active manifestation of his own essential nature,–in the complete realisation of his inmost being.


Ethics as a philosophical study is considered a practical philosophy, which strives to decide what should be; so examining this field of study does not lead to philosophical reflection as a final aim, but rather it is used in practical life. Some pretend that they need very little, but even this very little needs the services of a great number of people. The aims of training young boys, according to Miskawayh 5.

That is, he did not speak about preparing the boy for work, and his various roles as producer and consumer, one with a mzskawaih or craft or labour by which to provide for his future.

The Ethical Theory of Education of Ahmad Miskawayh | Muslim Heritage

It is a stone which has in it branches like those of a tree. As a Buyid bureaucrat, he worked under the vizier al-Muhallabi and had access to the internal happenings of the court.

Therefore, it is the duty of every human being to serve others fairly: Its prescriptions, with regard to the worship of God in common and the pilgrimage to Mecca for instance, have plainly in view the cultivation of the love of one’s neighbour in the widest acceptation. History, thus, is no longer a collection of static and isolated facts, but a dynamic process of creative human hopes and aspirations.

It is yet undecided whether he was himself Miskawaih or the son of ibn Miskawaih. It does not wither if all its branches are chopped but it dies when the head is cut off. This will be by craft and educational organization, and the way here is that we should firstly know our own souls, what they are, and what kind of thing they are, and for what reason they were created within us – I mean, their perfection and their aim – and what are their faculties and abilities, which, if we use them as is needful, will bring us to this high rank; and what are the things holding us back from it, and what will purify them so they prosper, and what will come upon them so that they fail [16].

If play here is necessary for relaxing from the exertion of training, physical exercise is important to the body, since the boy must be accustomed to walk, to move, and to ride, so that he does not become lazy; this because the various kinds of exercise dispel dullness and awaken energy and purify the soul [48]. That however we pass over; and in any case we ought not only to praise in general terms his attempt to give a system of Ethics which should be free from the casuistry of the Moralists and the asceticism of the Sufis, but also to recognize in the execution of his design the good sense of a man of wide culture.

Against the materialists he proves the existence of the soul on the ground that there is something in man which admits different and even opposed forms at the same time.

So he did not hesitate to rewrite these in his own language, Arabic. Different kinds of stones developed in course of time. For he distinguishes between reason and faith, or between philosophy and religion, since the supreme happiness is a human happiness, one which is neither imposed on man nor withheld from him by anything outside the scope of his will, and issuing from an intellect greater and stronger than his [19].

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The book is meant to provide students of philosophy and ethics an exposition of the main elements of philosophy. This emphasizes the multiple facets of his culture, making him a mirror for his age; for he is distinguished by the many sources of his culture and the encyclopedic nature of his writings [8]. For he sees that repeated warnings, and training, and people’s adopting good virtuous policies, must have some sort of influence among the kinds of people; there are some who accept training and move swiftly towards virtue, and others who approach it, and move towards virtue slowly [22].

That which is connected with training and avoidance of evils, and exercise of the soul, and following what the Law and Tradition define, and what wisdom prescribes: To sum up the foregoing, the basic aim of training and exercise and acquisition of knowledge, and working by it, is the refinement and purification of the soul: The first part deals with the proofs of the existence of God, the second with soul and its modes, and the third with prophethood.

Chapter 24: Miskawaih

Now the Good ibni either a general good or a particular good. Hence, they are not all in one single rank as regards acceptance of virtuous morality; and if they differ, then this difference and disparity between them, which is beyond reckoning, merits the greatest concern with training and habituation of young men to approved actions.

Iqbal, The Development of Metaphysics in Persia. Why does not Miskawaih mention Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi? Finally, it is in Self-Consciousness, or knowing of its own knowing, that the spiritual unity of the maskawaaih is most clearly shewn,–a unity, in which thinking, that which thinks, and that which is thought–all coincide.

Only a few,–Maskawaih thinks,–are by nature good, maaskawaih. The date-palm is therefore considered the highest among the trees and resembles the lowest among animals. He states the opinion of the early Greeks who say that nature can never be changed, but rejects it. For the same reason it is changeable and not eternal.

The Ethical Theory of Education of Ahmad Miskawayh

Miskawayh mentions supreme happiness in the third maqala of Tahdhib al-akhlaqand gives a detailed account of it in order to attract the attention of one who does not know it, so that he will seek it and will be seized by the desire to reach it [13].

Thus it was a personal happiness which the human being could reach through intellectual effort, and striving to acquire the sciences which would make his thought inclusive of all the areas and all existent beings, and make him free himself from material things so as to reach the degree of wisdom whereby to grasp human perfection.

He even felt it necessary to reform himself morally before writing his Tahdhib al-Akhlaq. In certain special points Ibn Maskawaih has not been successful in combining maskawakh the ethical doctrines of the Greeks,–which he incorporates in his Scheme,–either with madkawaih another or with the Law of Islam.

International Bureau of Educationvol.