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The Bicesse Accords in Angola. Virginia Page Fortna. In ‘ the combatants in Angola’s longstanding civil war signed a peace agreement. But the country was. Angola: The Bicesse Accords. Extracted from: “Angola” IN Compendium of Elections in Southern Africa (), edited by Tom Lodge, Denis Kadima and David. 25 years ago, May 31, , the Angolan Government and UNITA rebel movement signed in Portugal the Bicesse Accords that put an end to a.

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Military victory by one party over the other is a viable, and sometimes preferable, outcome to a weak negotiated settlement. It is as if we have a complex tumbler lock.

In Mozambique the UN envoy, Aldo Ajello insisted the elections set by the October peace accords be postponed because the demobilisation was behind schedule.

Orphan of the Cold War: Over the next twelve months, and amidst continuing heavy fighting and much deaththe two sides conducted talks facilitated by a team led by new UN Special Representative Alioune Blondin Beye and representatives of the Troika. Now the poor die and the politicians and generals get rich buying weapons, and the war just goes on forever.

What makes the Angolan case different is the interplay of national and international issues at stake. The failed implementation of both accords – the last and most important phase of the negotiation process – is indicative of the shallowness of the peace agreements.

The underlying assumptions and goals of those parties should also accord analysed. An interim ceasefire agreement went into effect on May 15, Commercially, the international community, through legitimate arrangements using oil reserves as collateral, has allowed the MPLA to mortgage the future of its country to fight the war.


Moreover, the devastated infrastructure often posed overwhelming logistical challenges and prevented the implementation of many physical aspects of the agreement, such as demobilisation and the extension of state administration. The results were disputed accores the country relapsed into war again, which left the then representative of the UN secretary-general, Margaret Anstee shocked. And for too many in southern Africa and elsewhere, the war in Angola is extremely profitable.

Weary and hungry, they pose no threat to their leaders: And additionally, disarmament should be taken seriously and adequate resources allocated to it. However, it was understood that this issue would have to be resolved in direct talks between the two accorda.

Bicesse Accords – Wikipedia

How should these failures and this success in reaching peace be interpreted? It will accorda assess their impact on the ‘peace process’, up to the point where it was replaced by a ‘war process’. UNITA only wanted peace because it was certain — as was almost everyone else at the time, including the MPLA — that it would win the elections, and achieve its aim of gaining state power.

In particular, Beye strove for consensus on meaningful power-sharing arrangements, rather than the token participation of the losing party mandated by the Bicesse Accords. Hence, all accords, no matter how lofty, have been cosmetic.

When we are strong, why should we say I am going into exile?

Having failed to ensure respect for the outcome of the elections, the international community simply ignored these killings in an attempt to restart negotiations. It has taken three peace accords — and, in Februarythe killing of Jonas Savimbi — for the arms to be silenced for good in Angola. The only test of sincerity in the negotiating process that the international community has developed for peacefully ending civil wars, is a supervised election.


Bicesse came at accord time when there was a lot of talk about a new international order and when the UN, after the Cold War, could regain its prominent role.

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UNITA claimed that after the ceasefire, the government attacked rebel positions throughout the country; the claim was denied by President Dos Santos. Foreign interests have played a crucial role from the war for independence onwards. The process of completion of the formation of FAA under the verification and monitoring of the United Nations will guarantee the existence of one single, national and nonpartisan accordz forces obeying the sovereign organs of the Republic of Angola.

It chose on one hand to confirm its past actions, i.

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Powerless, the international community tried to negotiate at least a modification of the conditions for the second round of the Presidential vote, to make the bucesse field less unequal. The government and UNITA had continued to purchase large quantities of arms, and had also continued to engage in sporadic, but intense fighting.

Peace will arrive in Angola when neither side is capable of waging war against the other. Local media reports stated that the Angolan countryside was at war.